TRANSFAC Element Ranges

When possible, Element Ranges that appear on Site Reports are derived from DNase I footprinting studies. If DNase I footprinting studies are not available, our second choice is to base Element Ranges on chemical modifications. Lastly, when neither DNase I footprinting studies nor chemical modifications are available, our third choice is to derive Element Ranges from gel retardation assays.

In case of different positional information for both DNA strands, the more upstream position has been taken for the 5' border, the more downstream position for the 3' border of the site.

Unless explicitly stated otherwise in the Reference Point block, the numbers for the Site Positions generally refer to the transcription start site. Occasionally (or normally for yeast genes due to their generally more heterogeneous cap site), they may refer to the translation start codon stated as "ATG" for the Reference Point. Other reference systems such as defined restriction sites may be indicated as well.

If the Element Range is missing from the Site Report, positions were not indicated in the references cited. If starting position is provided for the Element Range but the ending position is not provided, the location of the site was only approximated in the references cited.

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